The next note will develop the metric from x theory as a Minkowski metric with the velocity defined as in Note 265(1). This metric gives the following phenomena self consistently and to experimental precision: orbital precession per radian, electromagnetic deflection by gravitation, gravitational red shift, gravitational time delay, photon velocity and photon mass at closest approach of a photon grazing the sun. The Einstein theory results in a disastrous singularity as shown in UFT264, and has been abandoned worldwide by Baconian scientists (the huge ECE / AIAS following). It should no longer be taught except as a matter of science history. It has been influential but for all the wrong reasons, notably cynically misleading propaganda for which Wikipedia takes most of the blame. The new metric is based correctly on plane polar coordinates whose Cartan spin connection is the angular velocity. It is an example of ECE theory. The new metric correctly considers torsion and curvature correctly. Outside the solar system the new metric correctly gives the velocity curve of a whirlpool galaxy and its hyperbolic orbits, while the old and incorrect Einstein theory fails completely. The old Einstein theory is based on a geometry in which one basic property, torsion, is completely missing, and sooner or later was bound to fail catastrophically. Even worse, the Einstein theory of precessions has been known to be wildly wrong since Dec 1915, when it was heavily criticised by Schwarzschild. (Vankov, online translation with his own devastating criticisms). Dogma should not be allowed to corrupt Baconian science. One of the major aims of AIAS is to stop this happening.
In the first part of this note the gravitational red shift is calculated from O level Newtonian dynamics, around Form Two or Three. It is a common misconception that it is due to Einstein. In fact it is due to the equivalence principle for any theory of dynamics. Wikipedia is particularly culpable for spreading misconceptions like this in its fanatical zeal for the standard model of physics. The gravitational red shift is then calculated with x theory to give Eq. (25) from the experimentally observed planetary precession defined by x. Eq. (25) can be tested experimentally by measuring the Lorentz factor gamma = dt / dtau for a precessing orbit. The Harvard tower experiment measured the inertial Newtonian result (15), and was and is a test of the Minkowski metric, nothing to do with the Einstein theory with its failed Schwarzschild metric. The precise result of the Havard tower experiment is due to the fact that it was an inertial experiment, it effectively dropped an object from the top of the tower to the bottom and measured the frequency difference, which translates into a time difference. As an Aberystwyth, Oxford and Cornell man I know that you cannot tell a Harvard man anything, even the time (in humour, a well known joke like the standard model).
This can be worked out with one of the equations I remember from school:
u squared – v squared = 2 g r
Now drop an object to earth from a distance r above the earth, with initial velocity u = 0, final velocity v. Thi is an inertial phenomenon with radial but no angular part to the velocity. The acceleration g due to gravity is conventionally
g = – MG / r squared
from the equivalence principle. So
v squared = 2 MG / r
In special relativity the Lorentz factor is
gamma = (1 – v squared / c squared) power minus half
= (1 – 2 MG / (r c squared)) power minus half
~ MG / (r c squared)
= dtau / dt
which is the gravitational time delay, QED. Nothing to do with the old and incorrect Schwarzschild metric or the old and incorrect Einstein theory. The starting equation comes from the work integral, and I will explain this in note 265(1). For an elliptical orbit:
v squared = MG ( 2 / r – 1 / a)
and this must be used in the expression for the gravitational time delay. The difference is that the orbit contains an angular as well as a radial contribution to v. Here a is the semi major axis of the ellipse. In a precessing ellipse v squared is modified as in UFT264 to contain x, and the gravitational time delay will also be a function of x.
A literature search has shown that the gravitational red shift is not due to the Einsteinian general relativity at all. It is due to the equivalence principle, and appears in the Newtonian theory, which gives v squared = 2MG / r in the inertial frame (direct free fall towards the earth’s surface). The result v squared = MG ( 2 / r – 1 / a) for an elliptical orbit is derived in a non inertial frame. The extra 1 / a is due to the rotation of the plane polar coordinates. The gravitational red shift in an orbit will include this 1 / a, and there will be extra corrections for a precessing orbit, involving x as in UFT264. So in note 265(1) I will derive the gravitational red shift in a very simple way, and develop it for the precessing elliptical orbit of x theory. So there is nothing left of general relativity that can be attributed to Einstein. All the careful precision work on astronomy however remains valid, within the experimental assumptions and limitations, and can be attributed to x theory. Things that used to be attributed to Einstein can now be attributed to x theory. Things that do not exist in nature, such as big bang and black holes, should be eliminated completely from future natural philosophy. All this should be viewed in the light of improving Einstein’s pioneering work by constructive criticism and years of scholarly study, mainly by Horst Eckardt, Douglas Lindstrom and myself, but with contributions from the entire AIAS group. As usual these notes are directed at enlightened, open minded Baconian scientists, not at dogmatists.
The force needed for any planar orbit to precess is:
F = x squared F0
x = 1 + 3MG / (c squared alpha)
Here alpha is the half right latitude, M the mass attracting a mass m in orbit, G the Newton constant and c the vacuum speed of light. The force F0 was first given by von Leibniz in 1689 in “Tantanem de Motuum Coelestium Causis”. It is defined by
F0 = m d2r / dt squared = – mMG / r squared + L squared / (m r cubed)
where L is the total angular momentum, a constant of motion. We have
alpha = L squared / (m squared M G)
F0 = – mMG / r squared + alpha mMG / r cubed
The force F0 produces the conical section
r = alpha / (1 + eps cos theta)
while F produces the precessing conical section
r = alpha / (1 + eps cos (x theta))
where eps is the eccentricity. It appears that x is the same in all observable precessions to high precision (telescope and satellite observations and so on). This is true inside and outside the solar system. The observed x cannot be obtained from the Einstein field equation, now widely known to be incorrect dogma, and not Baconian science. The x theory is based directly on the astronomical data and also produces light deflection due to gravitation, the gravitational time delay, the photon velocity at closest approach and the photon mass. The Einsteinian dogma incorrectly asserts that the photon mass is identically zero, and that light always travels at c. Photon mass was first suggested by Poincare in July 1905. The gross error found in the Einstein theory in UFT246 means that the entire edifice of standard physics collapses. The 246 UFT papers to date have rethought the subject completely.
There were 1958 hits from 398 distinct visits, spiders from baidu, google and yahoo. Essay 25 Fallacy of Indeterminacy 1015, Auto1 443, Auto2 78, F3(Sp) 308, UFT88 109, Llais 90, Crisis in Cosmology 63, Book of Scientometrics 102, CEFE 49, Evans Equations 66, Engineering Model 38,Englynion 27, Auto Sonnets 25 Principles of ECE 26 to date in June 2014. University of Quebec Trois Rivieres UFT247; Department of Natural Resources Iowa State University extensive; Electrical and Computer Engineering Ohio State University UFT88; Engineering University of Tennessee Knoxville 2D; Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) Turin UFT85; Los Angeles Public Library Essay 24; Institute of Experimental Physics University of Wroclaw UFT149. Intense interest all sectors, updated usage file attached for June 2014.
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Many thanks again!
The fact that the x theory succeeds so well and simply, and the fact that the Einstein theory is so easily refuted means that I feel no further need to direct anything towards the standard physics in the hope of recognition and prizes and all that nonsense. Many people think that ECE and B(3) deserve a Nobel prize but the same old problem, the system is controlled by aging dogmatists. The nominations and letters of support are morally and ethically as good as any prize, and I will remain most grateful for them. AIAS has its own huge permanent following and the work is directed at them. The old system worked very much by blackmail, if you don’t think in this way then no job and no funding, a load of stupid abuse and so on. The thing that suffers most is science and all that is not exactly the School of Athens of Raphael. Most standard physicists sincerely believe in what they are doing and never studied torsion, so one still hopes to persuade them politely, but there are some complete fools who shall be mercifully nameless. To ignore the latest refutation is rather pitiful, so why bother with “them” at all?. My next step is to develop the gravitational red shift and de Sitter precession and related effects, but in a radically new way.
After a lot of haggling I got AOL to reduce my costs from an average of 100 pounds a month to 30. Only now have they explained that the Talk Talk contract was for broadband only. On top of that came telephone bills. For various reasons I am stuck with them, but at much reduced cost. It is of key importance to keep open communication of course. A huge amount has been achieved in the past eleven years and I am very happy with the latest results in UFT246.
This is UFT264, on the theme of photon mass from x theory, and the self consisent and precise application of x theory to relativistic phenomena. It is shown beyond reasonable doubt, and in yet another way, that the Einstein theory is incorrect, and should be abandoned by Baconian scientists.