In the papers 449-451, we have described how a centrally symmetric spacetime is able to produce electromagnetic force fields, without the presence of real electric charges. These fields arise from the geometry itself. The model is applicable on very different scales, showing a fractal structure. By this model, the jets of matter arising in the center of galaxies can be explained, down to the smallest entities of matter, elementary particles and even their constituents that are denoted as “quarks” in the Standard Model.

To fully cover the sub-atomic range, the spacetime has to be assumed to underlie the principles of general relativity. Within the development of ECE theory, it was found that m theory is a very ueful and versatile tool to provide such a description of spacetime. m theory is a generalization of the spacetime metric (“Schwarzschild metric”) that was used to describe “black holes” in Einsteinian theory. In the work of the AIAS institute, this metric has been generalized to describe any space distortion. In the simplest case, it is spherically symmetric and depends on the radial coordinate only. In this form it has been applied to a spherically symmetric spacetime. When approaching the spherical center, the metric of m theory leads to a reduction of the aether density, which goes to zero at the center itself. This behavior was required to obtain results that are compatible with the experimental findings described in the Standard Model. We can interpret this in saying that the center of each elementary matter unit is empty. The impression of physical matter (with all it quantum-mechanical and macrosopic consequences) comes from a vortex structure formed by a rotating aether or spacetime itself.

Since no electric charges are assumed in the geometric model, it is remarkable that the forces produced by the centrally symmetric spacetime have a divergence, which corresponds to a source charge. This charge is of topological origin exclusively. In other words, the centrally symmetric spacetime produces a structure, which we experience as electric charges. In addition, a dipole constituted from magnetic monopoles was found. This means that the divergence of magnetic fields is not zero as is normally assumed in standard physics and electrical engineering. In total, we have found the origin of charges, which was an enigma of science so far. The second enigma of science, the nature of gravitation, has already been unraveled in UFT paper 447. So we have made a significant progress in science and in natural philosophy.