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Myron Evans » Introduction to the complete works of Myron Evans

Introduction to the complete works of Myron Evans


 

Introduction to the complete scientific works of Myron Evans, British Civil List scientist, 1973 to date (2008)

The brief descriptions below outline the major themes in Myron's work.  Each theme is described in more detail and found by clicking on the section links.  Each theme references various publications Myron produced or co-authored. To view the descriptions of any publication, click on the Section Link and any reference number in that section.  The reference links will take you to the Complete Works page at the appropriate reference point.

Some of the referenced works are available in PDF format and linked from the Complete Works page.  We plan to make all of these publications available over time.  Announcements will be made from time to time when these publications are made available.


Myron Evans began to publish scientific papers when he was a Ph. D. Student of Mansel Davies at the then University College of Wales at Aberystwyth. These early papers were on the study of molecular motion using the far infra red region. This theme and development are described in Section One and consists of experimental studies and theory at UCW Aberystwyth, the National Physical Laboratory and with Claude Brot and Jean-Louis Rivail in France. The work with Brot's group in Nice introduced him to time correlation functions, thereafter extensively used in his work.

In Section Two, a new theme is introduced - computer simulation, which he first started to use at Oxford in 1975 in Sir John Rowlinson's group. The early simulations were based on code developed by Dominic Tildesley and others at Oxford, and then by his group at Aberystwyth using the University of Manchester Regional Computer Centre CDC 7600 computer.

Section Three describes a line of work which developed in cooperation with Bill Coffey at Trinity College Dublin on the use of Mori theory and the itinerant oscillator evaluated with the far infra red and computer simulation.

For the work described in Sections One to Three Myron Evans was awarded several Fellowships in open British, European and international competitions and two major recognitions, the Harrison Memorial Prize and Meldola Medal of the Royal Society of Chemistry. This work is also summarized in his D. Sc. Thesis and Ph. D. Thesis (both available at the National Library of Wales in Aberystwyth). 

Section Four describes the development of work with Paolo Grigolini's group at Pisa on the general theory of relaxation and memory function processes. The general theory was evaluated with computer simulation. The latter was developed in cooperation with Konrad Singer's group at Royal Holloway College in the late seventies and this is described in Section Five.

The code developed by Singer and others allowed the systematic computer simulation of small molecules, notably chiral or optically active molecules culminating in the discovery of a basic theorem of rotation-translation interaction in the early eighties.

Section Six describes systematic experimental and theoretical  studies of super-cooled liquids and glasses, culminating in the discovery of the far infra red gamma process with Colin Reid in the early eighties. Section Seven describes the Delta Project of the European Molecular Liquids Group, a Project which Evans planned as first European Scientific Coordinator. It was a systematic investigation of molecular liquids using all available techniques: experimental, theoretical and computational. In this project, simulation code was made freely available at SERC Daresbury Laboratory of the British Government.

Section Eight describes a new theme which developed in the early eighties, that of field applied computer simulation. The first papers on this simulated a static electric field to produce theoretically known Langevin functions to test the simulation method. Later, this theme was developed in many directions at UW Bangor, UW Swansea, IBM Kingston, Cornell, Zurich and UNCC., notably for  non-linear optics.

Section Nine describes some work with Grigolini's group in the mid eighties, notably on the testing of the Pisa group theory (known as "The Pisa Algorithm") against computer simulation and field applied computer simulation. Section Ten introduces new themes of field applied computer simulation in areas such as non-linear optics developed in the late eighties in Enrico Clementi's group at IBM Kingston, New York State, where Evans was a visiting professor.

Section Eleven introduces an important theme in Evans' later work - based on the inverse Faraday effect, the ability of a circularly polarized electromagnetic field to magnetize any material. This theme involved theory, simulation and animation, notably an award winning animation with Chris Pelkie at Cornell Theory Center made in the early nineties.

Section Twelve describes the development of optical NMR theory at Cornell Theory Center in the late eighties and early nineties, and work at Zurich on non-linear optics with George Wagniere's group. This work used both theory (with Stanislaw Wozniak) and field applied computer simulation. Section Thirteen summarizes the various reviews and monographs which were the culmination of this work up to the early nineties.

Section Fourteen summarizes the inference of the fundamental spin field of electromagnetic radiation at Cornell in 1992 and its development throughout the nineties with gauge theory. This development led to a form of electrodynamics in which the spin field was systematically incorporated - O(3) or non-Abelian electrodynamics.

Finally, Section Fifteen describes the development in Spring 2003 to date of an internationally acclaimed unified field theory known as Einstein Cartan Evans (ECE) field theory because it develops and essentially completes the work of Einstein and Cartan on the unification of fields within general relativity. This work is currently attracting several million hits a year on our websites, www.aias.us and www.atomicprecision.com.


Sections 1 - 15 Of Myron Evans' Work By Theme

1. Experimental And Theoretical Studies Of Molecular Motion Using The Far Infra Red And Other Methods

This theme is developed in refs. (1 - 40) , (42 - 44), (46 - 49), (51), (53), (55 - 57), (64 - 66), (69), (74), (75), (81 - 83), (85), (88), (97), (101) (The Meldola Lecture), (104), (106), (108), (112 - 114), (122), (129), (130), (134), (162), (164), (169), (170), (185), (186), (188 - 190), (193), (195), (201), (207 - 212), (215), (220), (221), (226), (227), (233 - 237), (247), (294), (300 - 302), and in the various reviews and books summarized in Section 13.

References (1 - 40) cover papers, notably in Faraday II, Spectrochimica Acta, Chemical Physics Letters, Molecular Physics, and Advances in Molecular Relaxation and Interaction Processes, together with Evans' Ph. D. Thesis (ref. (6)) and D. Sc. Thesis (ref. (44)). There are also some early reviews, notably by Sir John Rowlinson and himself in ref. (16) and ref. (75) with Gareth Evans and A. R. Davies in "Advances in Chemical Physics". This theme covers his experimental work as a Ph. D. student and SRC post doctoral and Junior Research Fellow of Wolfson College Oxford, later the British Ramsay Memorial Fellow and SERC Advanced Fellow.

The experimental work produced novel far infra red spectra of liquids, compressed gases, liquid crystals, rotator phases, crystals and solutions. The spectra were of two main types, dipolar absorption and collision induced multipole absorption. These were interpreted theoretically in the frequency domain at first with theoretical models such as the itinerant oscillator and theories of collision induced absorption, such as quadruple, octopole and hexadecapole induced absorption. With Brot's group in Nice Evans developed the use of the time correlation function, obtained by Laplace transform. This early Algol code is available in the code section of www.aias.us. He proceeded thereafter to Laplace transform experimental far infra red spectra into time correlation functions directly comparable with those obtained from theory. In these early years computer simulation was not yet available, but when it did become available (Sections 2, 5 and 8 for example) correlation functions were also available from that source. As can be seen this theme continues until reference (302) and also into the various books and reviews summarized in Section 13, so is a major part of his work.

The main achievements of this era included the evolution of understanding of molecular motion as studied in the far infra red, which was investigated experimentally with the then new technique of Fourier transform interferometry. The understanding was forged with the use of the time correlation function, which allowed models to be easily compared with the Laplace transform of the far infra red spectrum using Algol code on an Elliot Brothers 4130 computer. The far infra red spectrum itself was obtained by Fourier transformation of an interferogram, which was digitized on to paper tape. Using these methods, spectra were analyzed theoretically of the various states of matter mentioned already. The time correlation function method was extended to collision induced absorption. Myron Evans' main theoretical contribution of this era was the development of the memory function method in which the friction coefficient of the Langevin equation was developed as an integral. The Laplace transform thereby became a continued fraction, which he truncated, or restricted to three variables. This was known as three variable Mori theory. Spectra were then numerically fitted with a non-linear three variable Numerical Algorithms Group ( N.A.G). algorithm. He frequently worked N.A.G. Algorithms into his Algol code as can be seen in the code section. This method produced excellent descriptions of the far infra red for all kinds of materials and Evans was awarded the Harrison Memorial Prize and Meldola Medal of the Royal Society of Chemistry of London for this work, and also the development of computer simulation methods for the far infra red.

2. Computer Simulation Of Time Correlation Functions

This work is described in refs. (52), (54), (59), (60), and (91 - 93).

It was based on some of the first computer simulation code ever developed - by Dominic Tildesley and others at Southampton and Oxford. Tildesley is now the Chief Scientist of Unilever, and was a Ph. D. Student of Sir John Rowlinson when Myron Evans was there as SRC Fellow 1974 - 1976. He was elected Junior Research Fellow of Wolfson College Oxford in 1975. This early code was developed for diatomics and he adapted it to compute correlation functions at Aberystwyth. It was written in single precision CDC 7600 FORTRAN. The single precision of the CDC 7600 was very accurate, more so than IBM double precision at the time. There are not many papers in this section because this diatomic code was soon replaced by a multi-atomic code written by the Singer Group at Royal Holloway College (see Section 5) and made available at SERC Daresbury Laboratory of the British Government as part of the EMLG Delta project which Evans planned and supervised up to 1983. However he worked on this algorithm after bringing it to Aberystwyth from Oxford in a pack of cards and loading it on to the CDC 7600 by remote link to the Aberystwyth Computer Unit. The results used to take up to three months to obtain (from one run) because they had to be submitted on what was known as "zero priority", consuming so much computer time. They can now be obtained in a fraction of the time on a desktop with a FORTRAN compiler

The main achievements in this section included the first development of computer simulation at Aberystwyth, and the development of methods to compute the time correlation function from the simulation code. Evans was helped in this (and in Section 5) by post doctoral assistant Mauro Ferrario at Aberystwyth and later by Keith Refson at IBM Kingston. The code is available on the code section of www.aias.us. and was also animated at IBM Kingston and Cornell Theory Center. These animations show the molecular motions from which the correlation functions were computed. The formative achievement of this era was again helped by Evans' stay as a graduate student with Claude Brot's group, where he learned that the relevant correlation function for the far infra red is the rotational velocity correlation function. Brot also used an early computer simulation method and was one of the first pioneers. The Fourier transform of the far infra red power absorption coefficient is the correlation function of the time derivative of the dipole moment. The dielectric loss is the Fourier transform of the correlation function of the dipole moment itself. A range of correlation functions can be computed, such as linear and angular velocity, torque and force, orientation and rotational velocity. This method became a mainstay of Evans' main computer simulation work (Sections 5 and 8). In this Section they were computed from the early diatomic code from Oxford.

3. Work With Bill Coffey On The Itinerant Oscillator

This is described in refs. (41), (45), (50), (58), (61 - 63), (105), (107), and in the various reviews and books in Section 13.

Myron Evans' cooperation with Bill Coffey began when he phoned him at the EDCL, and when later, Mansel Davies asked him to deputize for him in a plenary lecture at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Study, founded by de Valera. The first DIAS Director was Erwin Schrodinger. At the DIAS conference Coffey and Evans found that the three variable Mori theory had the same mathematical structure as a theoretical model developed by Calderwood and Coffey called the planar itinerant oscillator. The cooperation proceeded to the evaluation of the theory with data from the far infra red, obtained by Gareth Evans and later Colin Reid, and from computer simulation. This theme led to the monograph, "Molecular Dynamics" (ref. (108)) published in 1982 by Wiley-Inter-science in New York City. The early theoretical models were improved gradually by the Coffey group in Trinity College Dublin (see the list of books and reviews in Section (13). They are now able to describe the far infra red accurately, whereas the first models were not. It was found for example that the planar itinerant oscillator produced a sharp peak in the far infra red when the complete range of data was considered (dielectric and far infra red combined). The complete alpha, beta and gamma spectrum which Evans inferred in the early eighties still poses a challenge to computer simulation and theory alike because it covers molecular dynamics from a time scale of picoseconds (far infra red or terahertz) to years (sub Hertzian). This is still out of range of computers now.

The main achievements of this part of his work include the interpretation of the three variable memory function theory with the planar itinerant oscillator and the beginning of an approach to the subject in which all available methods were used on one problem, notably the far infra red and dielectric frequency ranges, theory and computer simulation. This method eventually became the Delta Project for Europe, in which he also advised the U.S. NSF. The Delta Project was not implemented in full due to unfortunate events at Aberystwyth, but the plans remain available now. They must be updated, but the structure is the same. In ref. (62) for example, incoherent neutron scattering is considered with dielectric relaxation. The Delta Project considered data to be collected under defined conditions from all sources, for example: dielectric relaxation, far infra red, infra red, Raman, and Rayleigh band-shapes, neutron scattering, and so forth. Myron Evans' main achievements of this part of his work was to realize that the whole range of experimental data, theory and simulation was necessary for a more complete understanding than that obtainable from just one model, or one experimental method. The computer simulation method was realized to be a powerful method with which to attempt to reproduce the whole range of data, so code was written for the Delta project by the Singer Group in the University of London, and made available through the British Government. Until then various groups had worked in an uncoordinated way in various areas of specialization, often being unaware of each other's work

4. Work With The Grigolini Group In Pisa

This early work with the Grigolini group is recorded in refs. (78 - 80), (90), (94 - 96), (98), (103), (128), and (149), and in the monograph ref. (108).

The cooperation started when Grigolini wrote to Evans and he invited Grigolini to Aberystwyth. Grigolini was developing a general theory of relaxation and thermodynamics based on memory functions, the same approach as Evans used in Section 1. Evans obtained a large grant as a SERC Advanced Fellow at Aberystwyth and Grigolini asked him to appoint Mauro Ferrario as one of his post doctorals, the other being Colin Reid. Gareth Evans was appointed University of Wales Fellow upon Evans' recommendation and that of Mansel Davies. By that time Myron Evans was beginning to develop the field applied computer simulation method to evaluate the theoretical work. Ferrario was allocated to developing code for correlation functions and to help with theoretical work. This he did very well, being both very gifted and helpful in personality. Therefore it became possible to apply the three cornered approach to problems: experimental, theoretical and computational. For example in ref. (90) it was found that the molecular dynamics process is non-Markovian and non-Gaussian in general and in (96) a new continued fraction method was developed. This later became "The Pisa Algorithm". This early work developed into a sustained cooperation between Grigolini and Evans, culminating in ref. (176). This achieved one of the highest recorded journal impact indices of the Institute for Scientific Information.

5. Computer Simulation Of Multi-Atomic Molecules With The Singer Group Of Royal Holloway College And SERC CCP5 Of The British Government

This section deals with papers, reviews and books on this subject, refs. (84), (100), (102), (108), (109), (119 - 121), (123 - 127), (131 - 133), (138 - 144), (146 - 148), (151 - 161), (166), (167), (171), (173), (176 - 180), (182), (184), (188), (191), (192), (194), (196 - 200), (203 - 206), (223), (224), (228), (246), (281), (292), (293), (309), (328), (334), (352), (378) and two animations at IBM Kingston and the Cornell Theory Center.

The basic code for this kind of multi-atomic molecular dynamics computer simulation was developed during the Delta Project by the SERC Collaborative Computational Project (CCP) Section 5 of the British Government and was written mainly by Konrad Singer and his group. The code was made available at the SERC Daresbury Laboratory. Ferrario and Evans modified and extended the basic code to produce a range of correlation functions. The first publication (84) on these then compared Mori theory with computer simulation and the first application to triatomics was reported in ref. (119). Thereafter this code replaced the early diatomic code described in Section 2 and was used for many purposes. The first applications to far infra red data were reported in refs. (120) and (121), and application to the fundamental problem of interacting rotation and translation made in refs. (124) onwards. The code was then systematically applied to symmetric and asymmetric tops, and later to spherical tops. Refs. (146) and (147) report the fundamental theorem of translation to rotation correlation discovered with this method, respectively in J. Chem. Soc., Chem Comm. (Chemistry) and Phys. Rev. Lett. (Physics). The motion was evaluated with cross correlation functions in the molecule fixed frame. These disappeared in the laboratory frame and changed sign between enantiomers. This motion was later animated by Chris Pelkie and Myron Evans at Cornell in the early nineties, using the same code. The latter is available in the www.aias.us code section. The interaction of rotation and translation was computed with cross correlation functions in the moving frame of a chiral molecule, bromochlorofluoromethane, which has right and left handed mirror image molecules. A cross correlation function such as that between linear and angular velocity was found to change sign between enantiomers and vanished in the racemic mixture. This showed the ability of computer simulation to give fundamental new knowledge not available in other ways. In ECE theory (Section 15) the translation and rotation become relativistic and are represented by the Cartan curvature and torsion respectively. In this case the interaction is governed by the first Bianchi identity of Cartan. A gravitational and electromagnetic field thus interact through the first Bianchi identity (Section 15). This work was reviewed several times (see Section 13), notably in ref. (352), which contains several hundred references. The code was applied to liquids, gases and glasses and a range of correlation functions computed for different vectors such as linear and angular velocity, angular momentum, orientation, rotational velocity, force and torque. Correlations were evaluated at first order and at higher order. Particular attention was paid to the molecules chosen for systematic evaluation in the Delta Project.

The main achievements of this theme of Myron Evans' work included the first systematic application of computer simulation to experimental data such as those in the far infra red, and the use of computer simulation to evaluate theoretical models of diffusion process such as Mori theory, the itinerant oscillator and the Pisa Algorithm. Whenever possible the simulation results were used to back up data from the EMLG Delta Project. The interaction of molecular rotation with translation was systematically evaluated using cross correlation functions in the molecule fixed frame. It was discovered that this cross correlation disappeared in the laboratory frame and also depended on the handedness of a molecule (ref. (147), Phys. Rev. Lett.). This was work with Newtonian dynamics, but this theme carries through right into Section 15, which deals with the generally covariant ECE theory. The interaction of rotation and translation in that context is governed by the Cartan structure equations and Bianchi identities. ECE theory can also be completely computerized using contemporary high level symbolic languages such as Maple. This code was rewritten at IBM Kingston New York in double precision FORTRAN and applied to several novel problems there in the Clementi environment that developed one of the first parallel processors (LCAP). It was first animated in 1987 - showing for the first time the actual motion of the molecules as computed by the code. The examples in this first animation included hexafluorobenzene and a tri-yne.

6. Far Infra Red Investigation Of Glasses And Liquids With Gareth Evans And Colin Reid - Inference Of The Gamma Process

This theme of Myron Evans' work developed with students and later post doctorals Gareth Evans and Colin Reid at Aberystwyth in refs. (67), (68), (70 - 73), (86), (87), (89), and (108 - 111).

The far infra red gamma process was first reported in ref. (67), and linked to the much lower frequency alpha and beta processes in super-cooled liquids and glasses. It was realized therefore that the complete spectrum extends from sub Hertzian to terahertz frequencies, twelve decades of frequency, an immense range. Mansel Davies had built up a laboratory with this experimental capability at the Edward Davies Chemical Laboratories of the then University College of Wales Aberystwyth and all this capability was utilized by Colin Reid experimentally. A specially designed and built liquid nitrogen cooled cell was used to form the super-cooled and glassy states. Colin Reid and Gareth Evans also systematically studied the far infra red spectra of molecular liquids, glasses, liquids crystals and crystals, and this work is summarized in ref (108), the monograph "Molecular Dynamics" (867 pages). Unfortunately this work was cut short by administrative problems at Aberystwyth, so the last paper, ref. (111), was published in 1982.

The major achievements of this theme of work include the inference of the far infra red gamma process of super-cooled liquids and glasses, and the realization that the molecular dynamics of a super-cooled liquid and glass can be observed to evolve from picosecond time scales to those of years. To put this in perspective, recall that the visible range for example is less than one decade of frequency. The far infra red is just over one decade (10 to 300 wave-numbers). Colin Reid's experimental work was methodical, ingenious and accurate, and he also developed his own theory (see for example ref. (108)). Gareth Evans produced high quality far infra red spectra until his work was cut short in the late eighties, again by acute administrative failure at Aberystwyth.

7. The Delta Project Of The European Molecular Liquids Group

This is published in ref. (99) and in chapter twelve of ref. (108).

The Delta project is a plan for systematic investigation of three types of molecular liquid by all means available and under coordinated conditions. The overall aim was to obtain a complete picture of molecular dynamics, not fragmented into particular specialities. The complete picture includes all available experimental techniques, computer simulation, and appropriate theoretical methods.

Myron Evans writes about the project: "I began to realize that this project was needed when I was a SERC Advanced Fellow in the late seventies. It was brought into being as the Delta Project of the European Molecular Liquids Group formed at the National Physical Laboratory in about 1980. George Chantry was the first Chairman of the Group, I took the role of first European Coordinator. In so doing I consulted many European scientific agencies and Government Departments. At one point I discussed it with Tam Dalyell, then a Minister. My aim then was to establish an EMLG Laboratory at Aberystwyth. This could easily have been achieved with the minimum of cooperation from the College. Unfortunately this was not forthcoming. Nevertheless I pressed ahead as best as I could and some results are published in ref. (161) for example."

The main achievement of the Delta Project was to realize that a coordinated and systematic study of molecular liquids was needed at a fundamental level, because data were fragmentary and often conflicting, making a theoretical and simulation analysis difficult. Key data such as virial coefficients (needed for atom-atom potentials) were missing completely. Inter-molecular potential were therefore poorly known, ab initio methods were not often used to build up atom-atom potentials. Ahmed Hasanein and Myron Evans initiated this type of ab initio work and Evans concentrated on one of the key molecules, dichloro-methane. This type of fundamental research is important for a true knowledge of the molecular liquid state of matter. Unfortunately the fragmentary knowledge before the Delta Project is much the same today, about twenty five years later, because of the administrative preference in those years for applied research. The plans of the Delta project were carefully drawn up by Evans as Coordinator, and can be implemented today with updating.

8. Field Applied Computer Simulation

Evans developed the technique of field applied molecular dynamics computer simulation at Aberystwyth in the early eighties, and this became a central theme in refs. (115) - 118), (135 - 137), (145), (161), (163), (165), (168), (175), (176 - 181), (187), (202), (213), (222), (225), (270), (278), (279), (282 - 285), (287), (288), (291 - 293), (295 - 299), (303 - 308), (310 - 315), (322), (324 - 327), (329), (337), (341), (345), (348 - 350), (352), (356), (361a - 362), (368), (370) and (371).

The first papers were published in J. Chem. Phys. and simulated the effect of an external electric field using the torque generated between the field and the electric dipole moment. The torque was then integrated numerically and the effect on the molecular dynamics was evaluated with Langevin functions at various orders. It was found that the simulation code reproduced theoretically known Langevin functions for all applied field strengths. In the laboratory, only a small region of the Langevin function is accessible experimentally, even with intense pulsed electric fields in non-linear dielectric spectroscopy. After demonstrating the validity of the code, it became possible to apply the field applied computer simulation method systematically to chemical physics. Some of this work is recorded in the above references. The range of application included static and oscillatory electric fields, magnetic fields, electromagnetic fields, and shearing fields in mechanical flow with David Heyes. These types of external field were applied to different molecular ensembles to simulate for example rise and fall transients, Langevin-Kielich functions, laboratory frame and moving frame auto and cross correlation functions of various orders, and a range of non-linear optical effects with Enrico Clementi, George Lie and others at IBM, and with Georges Wagniere and Stanislaw Wozniak in the University of Zurich. At Cornell University the code was used to simulate the inverse Faraday effect and animated with Chris Pelkie (refs. (359) and (360) and animation DVD to be put on google and linked to www.aias.us).These simulations and animations produced a range of effects which could be compared with theory, and when available, experimental data. For example it was found that an external field induces cross correlation functions of many different kinds in the laboratory frame, cross correlation functions that do not exist in the absence of the field.

The main achievements of this theme in Myron Evans' work include the development of a generally applicable field applied computer simulation technique, (all code available on www.aias.us) and its application to a range of problems in non-linear dielectric and far infra red spectroscopy, non-linear optics and non-linear hydrodynamics. The effect of various types of field could be simulated in areas where the application of either theory or experiment was difficult. A notable feature is the animation by Chris Pelkie and Myron Evans of the inverse Faraday effect, which greatly helps to visualize and clarify the nature of the ECE spin field (Sections 14 and 15). The spin field is one of the observables which show that electrodynamics is generally covariant (a theory of general relativity) and not a theory of special relativity as suggested by Maxwell and Heaviside. The spin field B(3) (inferred from field applied computer simulation and theoretical work at Zurich and Cornell) in turn led to the development of a more complete gauge theory of electrodynamics (Section 14) and a generally covariant unified field theory (Section 15).

9. Mid Eighties Work With The Grigolini Group

The mid eighties work with the Grigolini group in Pisa is recorded in refs. (149), (176), (177), (183) and (202).

It is notable for the publication of references (176) and (177), two special topical issues of "Advances in Chemical Physics" which Evans was asked to edit for Prigogine and Rice. These were volume 62, "Memory Function Approaches to Stochastic Problems in Condensed Matter", in which he invited Grigolini and Pastori-Parravicini to be co-editors, and volume 63, "Dynamical Processes in Condensed Matter". Both volumes made an unprecedented impact as measured by the Institute of Scientific Information's journal impact index (citations per page of a journal). For this work Grigolini was invited to become a professor in the University of North Texas, and he now shares his time between North Texas and Pisa. Pastori-Parravicini, Ferrario and Marchesoni became full professors in Italy.

The main achievements of this theme include the development of a method whereby the general theory of relaxation developed by the Pisa group could be tested in detail against field applied computer simulation (Section 8), for example in rise and fall transients and correlation functions, including cross correlation functions. The computer simulation in three dimensions is more powerful than the theory for molecular liquids (and this remains the case today), but the general theory can obviously be applied more widely than the simulation. This is illustrated in volume 62 by the Pisa group. So it is always advantageous, as in the Delta Project (Section 7), to use both techniques to evaluate a range of experimental data.

10. Work With The Clementi And Wagniere Groups, New Themes Of Computer Simulation

The relevant references of this section are refs. (213), (214), (216 - 219), (222), (229 - 232), (238 - 244), (248) - (268), (271 - 277), (280), (286), (289), (290), and reviewed in ref. (352). Reviews are also refs. (75), (108), (161), (176), (177), (352), (378), (379), (402), and (579 - 581).

In 1986 Evans was invited by Enrico Clementi to become a visiting professor at IBM Kingston, New York State, where he was pioneering the array processor system known as LCAP (linear combination of array processors). Later he was invited from Cornell to a year at the University of Zurich by Georges Wagniere, who was studying the inverse Faraday effect and inverse magneto-chiral birefringence. These invitations led to an important transition in the work of Evans from classical computer simulation to gauge theory and an internationally acclaimed generally covariant unified field theory (Section 15).

The relevant references were reviewed in ref. (352), in the prestigious journal "Advances in Chemical Physics" ed. Prigogine and Rice. Ilya Prigogine was a Nobel Laureate and Stuart Rice has been awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor by President Clinton. Myron Evans was invited to produce several special topical issues and long reviews for this journal. These are refs. (75), (108), (161), (176), (177), (352), (378), (379), (402), and (579 - 581). At IBM Kingston Evans joined the large Clementi group and worked with Clementi himself, George Lie, and notably with Keith Refson. The latter helped him to produce more efficient code for the computation of correlation functions (see code section of www.aias.us). This code was better suited to the IBM 3090-6S supercomputer at IBM, Cornell and Zurich. Later he was the first to try it at Cornell on the IBM RISC 6000 work station, which proved to be as fast as the 3090-6S. The code may now be run on any desktop provide it has a FORTRAN compiler. Computer animations of the code were made at IBM and will be made available on google cross linked to www.aias.us.

The Clementi group was experimenting with some of the first animations ever applied to molecular dynamics computer simulation. The earlier CDC 7600 code was modified to double precision IBM code and applied to a range of problems. Evans was able to work with larger molecules because computer time was unrestricted. Some of his code consumed days of supercomputer time and the animations also consumed this amount of time. Later with the Wagniere group the ETH 3090-6S supercomputer was used remotely linked to the University of Zurich Irchel Campus to produce several different types of non-linear optical effects, notably the inverse Faraday effect.

The main achievements of this era include the development of field applied computer simulation for use with non-linear optics and also shearing in hydrodynamics. These were again studied with a range of correlation functions, transients, Langevin-Kielich functions and also with animation. The latter is useful to show that the code is working properly, because the molecular motions can actually be seen. Statistical averaging techniques are then applied to produce the correlation functions and so on. For the correlation function, running time averaging is needed, and for transients, ensemble averaging. Pair distribution functions were also computed directly. The most notable advance was the first computer simulation of the inverse Faraday effect in which the ECE spin field is observed. The effect of the spin field can be seen directly in the Evans / Pelkie animation. The molecular vectors can be seen to be spinning in the animation.

11. Early Work Leading To The ECE Spin Field

The references are exemplified by (269), (300), (306), (311, Physical Review Letters), (313), (316), (317), (331 - 333), (339a) and (339b), (340), (346), (351, Optics and Photonics News), (353 - 355), and refs. (372) and (373), the first papers on the spin field. Some of these references also occur in Section 12 on optical NMR and related effects.

This short section focuses on a few formative papers that led to the 1992 inference at Cornell of the ECE spin field (Sections 14 and 15). This is a fundamental and observable feature of electromagnetism at all frequencies and shows that electromagnetism is a theory of general relativity as required by Einstein's principles. The spin field is due to the spin connection, which in turn is due to the fact that the electromagnetic field is spinning space-time. That in turn allows a generally covariant unified field theory to be developed (Section 15). The references of this section record the beginning of Myron Evans' interest in the conjugate product of non-linear optics, which he first came across in a paper by Wagniere.

The main achievements of this formative theme was the inference from non-linear optics of the ECE spin field in 1992, and this era also records a transition from classical computer simulation to gauge theory and general relativity, the transition between the first half of his work, approximately, (about 350 papers) and the second half (another 350 papers, reviews and books). This Section and Section 12 is the transition time.

12. Work Leading To Optical NMR And Related Techniques

This work is recorded in refs. (316 - 323), (331 - 333), (335), (338 - 347), (351 - 355), (357 - 360), (363 - 367), (369), (398) and (399).

During his stay at IBM, Cornell and Zurich Evans began to develop work which led to the inference of optical NMR and related techniques. He was led to this inference by considerations of symmetry and the optical conjugate product of non-linear optics. This kind of optical NMR was therefore non-linear, there are other types of optical NMR which use a circularly polarized laser to align spins only and still use a permanent magnet. An example is that of the Kennedy group at the NRL. The type of optical NMR Evans considered does not need a permanent magnet. The conjugate product is the non-linear property used first by Piekara and Kielich in the fifties and then by Pershan at Harvard in 1963 to predict the existence of the inverse Faraday effect. The latter is a magnetization, so produces a phenomenon akin to ESR or NMR. Evans later inferred this to be RFR in 1995 (published in 1996 in ref. (446). The distinguished Kielich group in Poznan also inferred many other types of classical and quantum non-linear optical phenomena (see refs. (378) and (579) for collected reviews of the work of the Kielich group). Among these is the optical Zeeman effect, which is a type of RFR (ref. (446)) which observes shifts and splits in spectra. This is another phenomenon that is due to the ECE spin field. The references in this theme of Evans' work therefore cover this type of optically induced magnetization and related effects using theory, simulation and animation. The work of the Kielich group continues in the Kielich Institute of Poznan University.

The main achievements of this theme in Evans' work include several inferences in non-linear magneto-optics, and the development of code to simulate non-linear magneto-optics. The work was carried out at Cornell and Zurich. Following the inference of the ECE spin field in refs. (372) and (373) he decided to concentrate on the development of its many implications in theoretical and applied science after winning in open competition a Chair in Applied Optics at UNCC, a Chair which he still holds today.

13. Ph. D. Thesis, D. Sc. Thesis, Reviews And Books

In the list of publications the Ph. D. Thesis, D. Sc. Thesis, reviews and books are as follows: refs. (6), (16), (44), (75), (99), (101), (108), (109), (141 - 143), (161), (176 - 179), (225), (236), (246), (289), (352), (374), (378), (379), (398), (401), (402), (420 - 422), (431), (433), (434), (445), (446), (449 - 452), (460 - 462), (464 - 469), (471), (472), (499-556), (567), (572), (573), (579 - 585), (590 - 596), (602 - 604), (674), (675) and (694).

Evans have authored, co-authored, edited and series edited about sixty five review articles and monographs, collections of reviews and a Ph. D. Thesis (1974) and D. Sc. Thesis (1977). The latter was awarded for original and distinguished contributions to knowledge and is the highest British and Commonwealth degree. He was awarded it at the youngest recorded age of 27.

The major achievements in Evans' work over thirty five years are summarized in these reviews and monographs. His Ph. D. Thesis and D. Sc. Thesis are both available at the National Library of Wales in Aberystwyth, but cannot be loaned out. Myron Evans writes: "There are probably two other copies in the Hugh Owen Library of the University of Wales Aberystwyth unless they were lost in the turmoil of the EDCL closure. These if they still exist can be loaned out. Mansel Davies told me that he thought my Ph. D. (ref. (6) to be one of the two best he had supervised, and my D. Sc. (ref. (44)) is unique since it was awarded when I was only 27."

His first review was with Sir John Rowlinson at Oxford (ref. (16)) when he was JRF of Wolfson College he edited a number of special topical issues for Prigogine and Rice in "Advances in Chemical Physics" and also contributed several long reviews there. He was awarded his first book contract by Wiley-Interscience, on Rice's recommendation, in 1980. He invited Gareth Evans, Bill Coffey and Paolo Grigolini to be co-authors. This is ref. (108), published in 1982.

Other book contracts followed from Wiley Interscience, World Scientific, Kluwer, Taylor and Francis and Abramis Academic. He also published a number of reviews for journals published by Elsevier. Evans also edited several journal special issues. He is currently working on the fourth volume for Abramis Academic of "Generally Covariant Unified Field Theory". It is ready in manuscript form (papers 55 to 70 on www.aais.us) and is being typeset at time of writing (Oct. 2006).

14. The B(3) Spin Field And Its Effect On Electrodynamics: O(3) Gauge Theory Of Electrodynamics

This is important precursor work to Einstein Cartan Evans (ECE) theory and starts with refs. (372) to (377) in 1992 with the inference of the B(3) spin field from the inverse Faraday effect at Cornell shortly after Evans returned from Zurich. Then the gauge theory of electrodynamics is developed in refs. (380 - 401), (403 - 419), (423 - 430), (432), (435 - 444), (446 - 448), and (453 - 597) with the exception of series edited books on other subjects in this part of the list.

The first major achievement of this theme of work is the inference of the B(3) spin field from the inverse Faraday effect in refs. (372) and (373). This was followed by approximately eleven years of intensive development of an O(3) invariant gauge theory of electrodynamics called O(3) electrodynamics or non-Abelian electrodynamics. The Maxwell Heaviside theory is U(1) invariant and does not include the spin field self consistently. For this reason it cannot be unified with gravitation in a generally covariant manner as required. Evans actually inferred B(3) in about November 1991 when he was working on simulations of the inverse Faraday effect. It is clear that the magnetization observed in the inverse Faraday effect is caused by a hitherto unknown type of magnetic field, and that this must be radiated. It must also be defined by the conjugate product and therefore must be a phenomenon of non-linear optics. It has been shown that the B(3) spin field can be incorporated an O(3) symmetry gauge theory of electrodynamics, and that its influence on quantum electrodynamics is very small. Thus, B(3) does not lead to any catastrophic loss of precision or renormalization in quantum electrodynamics, and has many advantages as shown in great detail in these publications. Maxwell Heaviside theory is recovered in limits, but with the loss of ability to describe the inverse Faraday effect from first principles. Given these advantages however, O(3) invariant electrodynamics is still a theory of special relativity, and so must be developed into a theory of general relativity before generally covariant field unification can begin. This was initiated in ref. (598) in Spring 2003. Many aspects of O(3) gauge invariant electrodynamics were developed and rigorously tested against data. The way in which B(3) interacts with matter was understood in all detail. For one electron, the spin field produces radiatively induced fermion resonance, the resonance implied by the existence of the inverse Faraday effect.

15. Generally Covariant Unified Field Theory

This is described in refs (598) onwards to present (2008) and on two hugely popular websites, www.aias.us and www.atomicprecision.com.

Generally covariant unified field theory is based on well known Cartan geometry, sometimes called Riemann Cartan geometry. It is called Einstein Cartan Evans (ECE) field theory because it was inferred from Cartan geometry as described in a book by Sean Carroll, "Spacetime and Geometry, an Introduction to General Relativity" (Addison Wesley, New York, 2004), chapter three. It became immediately evident to Myron Evans that the spin field must be described by the second term of the first Cartan structure equation. The latter defines the Cartan torsion in terms of the tetrad and spin connection. At that point (about February 2003) Evans did not know that Cartan had suggested to Einstein that the electromagnetic tensor is indeed his torsion form.

Evans thereafter inferred the basic ansatz of ECE theory that the electromagnetic form is the torsion form within a scalar factor. The first Cartan structure equation thus became the equation which defines the electromagnetic field in terms of the potential field, the latter being the tetrad form within the same scalar factor. In 2003 and 2004 several major advances were made, a wave equation was deduced from the tetrad postulate, and from this the Dirac equation was deduced in the limit when the fermion field becomes independent of all other fields. This wave equation satisfactorily unifies quantum mechanics and general relativity. He also suggested improvements to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. In 2003 - 2005 the field equations of electrodynamics were deduced in a form which unifies them with gravitation and all other fields. All the major equations of physics were deduced as limits of ECE theory. The latter is causal and objective.

In 2007 it was shown that the vacuum of quantum electrodynamics can be described more consistently be ECE theory. In cosmology torsion was included with massive consequences for the cosmological standard model, which was shown to suffer from a lot of inconsistencies. Many other directions of thought have been pursued from 2003 to 2008 as in publications (598) onwards.

The response to ECE theory has been overwhelmingly positive as we can see from feedback software of the web site which accurately monitors feedback every day. Thus, ECE is read and studied in all major universities and institutes worldwide, and in all major corporations, government departments, organizations and by scholars. It has been extensively tested experimentally. Thus electrodynamics is a gauge invariant and generally covariant sector of a unified field theory.

Myron Evans was awarded a Civil List Pension in Spring 2005 for distinguished contributions to Britain and the Commonwealth in science, and we trust that these notes give an idea of the totality of his work over thirty five years.


 

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