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Overview of ECE Theory


Overview of ECE Theory

The link below is the PDF version of the Overview with selected visitor statistics dating to 2004.



Summary of Overview:


               The 194 source papers to date of Einstein Cartan Evans (ECE) theory are posted on, , and They are also published in seven volumes to date of M. W. Evans, AGenerally Covariant Unified Field Theory@ (Abramis 2005 to 2009) and in journals. The appendix shows that the theory has developed into a new school of thought in physics, and is used routinely in all sectors. The site also contains many articles and similar by colleagues who have applied and developed the theory in several directions. This is a brief overview of the papers, showing how the standard model of physics is rendered obsolete. The ECE theory can be applied in physics, mathematics, chemistry and electrical engineering, notably in the search for new energy. During the course of its development, nearly all the main concepts of the Astandard model@ have been shown to be obsolete. The demonstrations of its obsolescence are straightforward and based on the application of the fundamental commutator method. Each source paper is accompanied by several background notes which give comprehensive detail.

 There are about a thousand of these notes posted on All this material is regularly studied by the international community in all its sectors: academic, corporate, institutional, military, governmental and individual scholars.  The Appendix is about 1 - 5 % of the unprecedented total interest for the site, recorded from 30th April 2004 to present.  These data have been chosen to represent the highest quality interest, which is assumed to be that from universities, institutes, government departments, military facilities, large household name corporations, and organizations and similar. The complete interest is archived on computer from mid 2006 onwards for The total interest in ECE theory can only be described as astounding, and for the three ECE sites mentioned already runs into many millions of files downloaded (Ahits@). The monthly summary of interest is recorded back to the year 2002 on the file monthly.doc attached to this overview file. The relative impact of the theory has been measured against about fifty other commensurable sites and is given in the comparative impact table on This shows clearly that ECE theory is the one that is making most impact by far at present. The impact is recorded by feedback activity software and is measured in many ways. The feedback archives are available on request. They are analysed daily and the Appendix is the overall result of five and a half years of daily analysis.       
             It is convenient to give a brief overview of the ECE theory in reverse chronological order. In later papers methods were strengthened and simplified to the point where the fundamental incorrectness and obsolescence of the standard model becomes clear to those with a minimum of mathematical training. A key concept in this development is that of the commutator of covariant derivatives. This is an operator which acts on a vector or any tensor in general to produce the fundamentals of geometry. The ECE theory is based directly on geometry, specifically on the concept of spacetime torsion, ignored incorrectly in the standard model. This basic error persisted throughout the twentieth century, meaning that a great amount of gravitational and cosmological work is incorrect, a major disaster for the old physics. This resulted in an unacceptable waste of public funding, it is estimated that the order of a hundred million dollars has been wasted on incorrect theory.
                 The overview of the contents of the ECE source papers is given first. Papers 122 and 131 to 134, and the five proofs on the homepage of introduce the antisymmetry theorem of ECE, and apply it to gravitation and electromagnetism. Both the gravitational and electromagnetic sectors of the old physics (standard model) are shown to be incorrect by straightforward use of the commutator operator in these papers and their background notes. The main result in gravitation is that the connection is antisymmetric in its lower two indices, not symmetric as in the old physics. This alone is enough to show that the whole development of twentieth century cosmology is meaningless. In ECE theory it has been replaced entirely by a development based on the correct use of torsion. In the electromagnetic sector papers 131 to 134 show that the antisymmetry theorem is enough on its own to render the Maxwell Heaviside theory meaningless, and again, this has been replaced entirely by a theory and engineering model based on the correct geometry, and correct use of the commutator. The two sectors are unified naturally by the use of geometry and by a simple fundamental hypothesis. Both sectors are rendered generally covariant as required by the philosophy of relativity. In these papers, the concept of spin connection resonance is shown to be central to energy from spacetime, as is the antisymmetry theorem itself.
                  Papers 129, 130 and 135 give the ECE equations of the fermion and the SU(2) equations of the electromagnetic field. The main philosophical advance of these papers is the final rejection in ECE theory of unobservables in physics. These are non-Baconian entities that cannot be observed experimentally. In the old physics unobservables proliferated, so that the entire subject became vastly over complicated and almost meaningless to science. Two examples rejected in these papers are the Dirac sea and negative energy. They are replaced by Baconian concepts based on geometry. The Dirac equation is shown to be based on geometry, and is simplified to an equation based on 2 x 2 matrices. The use of the 4 x 4 matrices of Dirac is shown to be over complicated. The anti-fermion is described in a much simpler way than that of Dirac, in accordance with Okham=s Razor of philosophy, the simpler theory is preferred. 
                  Papers 123 to 128 develop new cosmologies based on torsion, and without use of the incorrect Einstein equation. To dedicated scholars, the latter has been known to be incorrect almost since it was first inferred in 1915. For example Schroedinger and Bauer independently pointed out some problems with it as early as 1918. Since then many others have criticised it, notably Eddington, Dirac and Levi-Civita, one of the pioneers of tensors. The equation is based on the incorrect use of a symmetric connection, and the subsequent omission of torsion. In consequence, papers 93, 95, 96, 100, 117 and 120 of ECE theory show through the use of computer algebra that the equation is incorrect, sometimes wildly so. These computer algebra calculations will be collected shortly in a monograph, ACriticism of the Einstein Field Equation@. The Appendix shows that all these papers have been intensely studied since they were posted. The logic behind them is relatively simple and based on the Cartan Bianchi identity of standard differential geometry. The identity has been proven in all detail in papers such as 112, 109, 104, 99 - 103, 88 and 15. Again all these papers have been intensively studied worldwide, some for several years. The proofs are self checking and irrefutable.
                   Paper 121 gives the conservation theorems of ECE and paper 116 the continuity theorems. The most important result is that spin connection resonance obeys the theorems, so electric power from spacetime can be obtained without violation of any basic conservation or continuity theorem. Spin connection resonance (SCR) is a Bernoulli Euler resonance which does not violate any basic theorem.
                Papers such as 49, 76, 77, 105, 106, 108, 110, 111, 114, 117, 118 and 120 deal with cosmology based on torsion and correct geometry, and no longer use the incorrect Einstein field equation. Paper 88 shows that the so called Asecond Bianchi identity@ used by Einstein is incorrect, again because of its use of an erroneous symmetric connection and erroneous neglect of torsion. Paper 88 gives the correct identity from the Cartan Bianchi identity. The Appendix shows that these key papers are studied routinely throughout the world, so funding of incorrect cosmology and of experiments that are badly designed should be abandoned. The Gravity Probe B experiment was shown in paper 117 for example to have produced no result at the cost of the order of several millions of dollars. The ECE theory gives the order of magnitude of the result without use of the Einstein field equation and without any expenditure of public funds. Any experiment designed to Aprove@ an incorrect theory is of course obsolete and should not be funded. Again, the antisymmetry theorem of ECE is enough to show that the theory behind CERN is incorrect. The CERN theory is based on electroweak theory which is in turn based on a U(1) sector symmetry for electromagnetism. This sector symmetry corresponds to the thoroughly obsolete Maxwell Heaviside theory. This has been heavily criticised throughout the twentieth century by many dedicated scholars. It was replaced in 1992 by B(3) theory and similar theories due for example to Horwitz et al, Amoroso et al., Lehnert et al., Barrett, and Harmuth et al. The B(3) field is observed in the inverse Faraday effect and is the precursor concept of ECE theory. The Maxwell Heaviside theory does not explain the inverse Faraday effect without the ad hoc introduction of the conjugate product of non-linear optics. All this is well known, and billions are wasted on CERN because it is based on a theory that is not only incorrect but one which is full of unobservables such as the Higgs mechanism and boson, and full of adjustable parameters. There are currently fears that CERN may not reach its specified energy level, and it has been seriously delayed. The Higgs boson was not observed in the LEP cooperation that preceded CERN. The reason made clear by ECE theory and by many other scholars, is that the Higgs boson does not exist.  
                  Papers 63, 94 and 107 are papers in electrical engineering which are among the most read of the ECE papers as the Appendix shows. They use the concept of spin connection resonance introduced in papers 52, 53, 59 - 65, 61, 68 and 74 in response to well developed devices manufactured and sold by the Alex Hill company in Mexico City. The US Navy asked me to come up with a plausible explanation for the unprecedented spikes of electric power observed when it tested these devices, invented by Aureliano Horta and developed by Alex Hill using advanced robotics and microcircuits. It is significant in this context that all the major computer and circuit corporations have been studying ECE theory for nearly six years. For example IBM, Intel, Motorola, Microsoft, Sun, Hewlett Packard and many others. Again the Appendix shows this clearly. A range of devices based on SCR have now been developed and code developed by Lindstrom and Eckardt to simulate them.
                 Papers 85 to 87 give the ECE theory of the radiative corrections. Here ECE is preferred to QED by Ockham=s Razor. As is typical of the old physics, QED is full of unobservables such as virtual particles, electrons that can go backwards in time, indeterminacy, and adjustable parameters such as dimensional regularization and renormalization. It is not known whether the series used in QED converges even after thousands of terms are used. To any objective scientist, QED is unworkable and QCD more so. During the course of development of paper 85 the disturbing discovery was made that the data of the NIST standards laboratory were wildy self-inconsistent, so the claim to accuracy of QED is false in several ways, In ECE the vacuum is filled with a primordial voltage, which causes the various radiative corrections. This primordial voltage can be amplifed by spin connection resonance, and the Tesla resonance is a manifestation of spin connection resonance.
                 Papers 80 - 84 develop the theory of the inverse Faraday effect (IFE) and radiatively induced fermion resonance (RFR) for one electron. If developed, RFR leads to magnetless ESR, NMR and MRI at ultra high resolution. This would be of immense benefit to chemistry and medicine. Again we see in the Appendix that the medical community studies ECE papers and articles regularly.
                  Papers such as 71 replace the obsolete gauge principle by one based on geometry, the invariance of the tetrad postulate under the general coordinate transformation. In the old physics, gauge theory was developed from the Heaviside potentials and elevated incorrectly into a principle of physics. The antisymmetry principle of the latest ECE papers shows that gauge theory is incorrect fundamentally. It is also incompatible with the Proca equation and photon mass theory as is well known to dedicated scholars. 
                     Papers such as 40, 41, 54 to 57 deal with basics such as coordinate invariance in classical and quantum mechanics, geodesic analysis and second quantization in quantum field theory. It is shown in these papers that everything can be developed from geometry, a basic need of relativity. Paper 50 is the first review paper, and paper 48 describes straightforwardly an simply  how the interaction of gravitation with electromagnetism can produce a change of polarization, as indeed observed experimentally when light grazes a massive object.  This is one of the many experimental confirmations of ECE theory given in a table on and in the books by Kerry Pendergast on   Paper 47 introduces the dielectric version of ECE theory, a simplified version, and papers 45 and 46 give the ECE theory of the Sagnac effect. Papers 43, 44 and 107 give theories of the Faraday disk generator, paper 107 incorporating SCR into the theory to describe experimental reports of surges of electric power observed recently in a variable frequency generator.  As can be seen in the Appendix these are always well read papers along with papers 63 and 94, and articles to do with new energy. This area is badly in need of public funding. 
                    Paper 39 replaces the concept of dark matter with torsion based on the correct geometry and papers such as 37 and 38 with aspects of intrinsic spin, strong field theory and similar. Papers 33 - 36 prove the tetrad postulate in about ten different proofs, and prove the ECE Lemma in several ways. The Lemma is the geometrical basis of the wave equations of physics, and of quantum mechanics without indeterminacy. Papers 13 and 32 give a generally covariant commutator equation of wave mechanics which replaces the now obsolete Heisenberg indeterminacy principle. The latter is well known to dedicated scholars to have been thoroughly refuted using microscopy. By advanced optical microscopy in the Croca group, (Lisbon University), and electron microscopy in which atoms are observed directly. The latter was first achieved by Sir John Thomas and his group in the seventies. Kerry Pendergast gives a vivid description of how this was done, he himself being an observer of atoms. According to Heisenberg, Kerry, the measurer, made the atoms exist by invocation of the occult and by supplication to the idols of the cave. This illustrates vividly the grotesque decadence and intellectual dishonesty of the old physics, kept alive as it is by sinecures for the public purse and by attempted suppression of  new thought. Mediaeval methods.     
                    Papers 27 and 28 deal with the Aharonov Bohm and inverse Faraday effects, and papers 19 and 20 with electroweak theory and neutrino oscillation theory, both based on geometry.  Paper 15 is always well studied because of its detailed and self checking proofs of the mainstays of Cartan geometry.
                     The first paper of ECE theory was written in March 2003, giving the field equations, and was followed shortly by the ECE wave equation in paper 2. The latter has been studied intensely for nearly six years. Paper 3 gave the basics of the unified field theory, and paper 4 gave the Dirac equation as a limit of the ECE equation. Finally paper 5 gave the theory of the strong and gravitational fields.

                 Over the past few years several articles, overviews and lectures have been prepared by colleagues on ECE theory. As can be seen from feedback these articles are all read each month, and are a valuable contribution to the progress of science. In July 2009 for example the most read articles were as follows.

1) ADevices for Spacetime Resonance Based on ECE Theory@ by Dr. Horst Eckardt, AIAS Director and 2009 TGA Gold Medallist. This is an article that has been studied intensively for nearly six years and gives an overview of how devices taking energy from spacetime may be constructed using the principles of spin connection resonance.
2) AEinstein Cartan Evans - a New View on Nature@ by Horst Eckardt and Lar Felker. This is a valuable overview of ECE theory which has been translated into several languages, and is always intensively studied each month. (Referred to as ECE).  
3) AThe ECE Theory, History and Key Persons@, this is a valuable public lecture by Dr. Horst Eckardt, written on a level that the general public can comprehend.
4) AHow do Space Energy Devices Work?@ by Dr. Horst Eckardt, Spanish translation by Alex Hill. This is an introductory article which along with several other articles, has been translated into Spanish by Alex Hill.
5) AECE Engineering Model, the Basis for Electromagnetic and Mechanical Applications@, by Dr. Horst Eckardt. These slides give the basic ECE equations of electrodynamics and dynamics.   
6) AHow do Space Energy Devices Work, An Explanation by ECE Theory@, English language version of article 4.
7) AThe Life of Myron Evans@, a biography by Kerry Pendergast, an excellent book, always well read, and scheduled to be made into a film directed by Ken Russell.
8) ASpace Time Resonances in the Ampere Maxwell Law@ by Dr. Douglas Lindstrom, one of several articles on spin connection resonance with original input by Dr Lindstrom, sometime of the Alberta Research Council.  
9) AComprehensive Advanced Aerospace Program@, by Charles Kellum and Associates, giving a description of a device family for new energy and counter gravitational applications.
10) ACrystal Spheres@, an original and always well read book by Kerry Pendergast which includes a history of the British Civil List scientists and many other things of interest.
11) Spanish translation of article 1.
12) AOn the Development of ASpacetime@ and a Unified Theory of Physics@ by Dr.  Gareth J. Evans, an article which gives an excellent overview of ECE theory, pure and applied.
13) Spanish translation by Alex Hill of AThe Evans Equations of Unified Field Theory@ by Laurence Felker, whose original book was published by Abramis in 2007 and which was a Avirtual best seller@ on (Referred to as F4).
14) Spanish translation of ECE.  
15) Severe and definitive criticisms of black hole theory by Stephen Crothers, 2008 TGA Gold Medallist. These are given in several of the ECE papers and in an article, ABlack Holes, Unicorns and All that Jazz@.
16) AGalaxy Structures described by ECE Theory@ by Horst Eckardt, always a well read article in both English and Spanish, giving a popular account of galactic dynamics in ECE theory.
17) F13 in Spanish.
18) Spanish translation of article (16).

There are about forty of these articles and presentations in all, and every month every article is read worldwide.

                    The feedback patterns in the appendix have been studied over nearly six years and show a steadily increasing and continuous interest in ECE theory, both papers and articles. It can be seen that over this span of time, essentially all institutions to do with theoretical physics have begun to study the theory continuously. This implies an overwhelming rejection of the obsolete standard model among staff and students of several disciplines. The great amount of material downloaded from the site indicates that this is not casual interest, it is deep study. A table of the world=s best universities and institutes is available on the internet, so it is possible to deduce objectively that they all study ECE theory routinely. A feature of the feedback is that there is considerable student interest, because of the periodicity of the visits. During semester or term time the number of university visits is greater than during vacation time.  Although important, the university and institute sector interest is small compared with the industrial sector. Literally thousands of corporations study ECE theory routinely by now. Sometimes the appendix records major or household name corporations. In the computing sector for example there are repeated visits from IBM, Intel, Motorola, Hewlett Packard, Microsoft and so forth. In the aerospace sector there are repeated visits from Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman for example.  Again, it is known that these are not casual visits because of the number of gigabytes downloaded and the number of files downloaded. Over nearly six years the latter amount to several million, and the former to several hundred gigabytes. The number of individual visitors per month peaked in June 2009 at over twenty five thousand during the month for all ECE sites:, and
                    A significant feature of the interest is military and governmental. As can be seen form the appendix the US military sector continuously studies ECE theory. All four services have repeatedly visited Army, Navy, Airforce and Marines. These visits include ones from the Pentagon and Tactical Commands. Many US Departments also study the site continuously, notably Departments of State, Transport, Health, NASA, NOAA, Government Laboratories, Government science agencies such as NSF and NIH, several sections of NASA, and so forth. There have been visits from Head of State staffs of several countries, and from the US Congress. A similar pattern of visits occurs from Europe.
                    Visits have occurred monthly from up to 116 countries. The leading interest occurs from the major industrialized countries as may be expected. The main areas of research work in theoretical physics may be identified clearly from the Appendix as North and Central America (USA, Canada and Mexico) and Europe. However there is also considerable interest from the Far East: (Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Taiwan and South Korea). The university and institute visits are uniformly distributed in each region, for example they cover the entire United States and the entire area of Western and Central Europe. Visits from the Russian Federation and China occur more rarely but they do occur continuously. There are also visits from the near East, notably from India, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia. Visits also occur routinely from the entire continent of South America, notably from Argentina and Brazil.
                     There is an overwhelming number of visits from individuals. These are not recorded in the Appendix, but are totalled up in the appended file of monthly visits from 2002 to present. The complete feedback data for is backed up on computer from 2006 to present and is available on request. There are also many automated search engine visits, and ECE is picked up by every major search engine.
                     A significant feature of the feedback is that every month, over 1,500 documents are read off the site, including all the 135 ECE source papers to date, and all the forty or so books and articles written by other ECE scholars. It is also significant that the background notes to each paper are read every month. There are several hundred of these, and give more much more detail than the 135 source papers. This means that the theory is continuously studied in depth. 
                    It may be concluded from every measure of feedback therefore that ECE is a new school of thought by international usage. Conversely the standard model of physics has been rejected as obsolete and unworkable. Government funding should therefore be switched away from expensive white elephants such as CERN to urgent matters of sources of new energy. Quality controlled website publishing has made journal publishing obsolete. Journal citations have been overtaken by measure of actual usage, a far better indicator of relevance, immediacy, timeliness, acceptance and usage. This is especially true when an obsolete elite  restricts journal publication to the standard theory. It becomes known over time that this is happening, so confidence in these journals is eroded to almost nothing.  Accordingly the readership has turned to the ECE websites, literally in their hundreds of thousands, if not millions.  This is an unprecedented event in the history of science.
Evans of Glyneithrym,
British Civil List Scientist,
September 2011    


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