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### The ECE and SM Schools of Thought

Some basic differences between the standard model (SM) school of thought and ECE are listed as follows.

1. In ECE the force fields of physics are unified by geometry as required by the basic philosophy of general relativity. All fields become aspects of the same geometry. The standard differential geometry is used for this purpose. Thus ECE is the first generally covariant unified field theory that is of practical utility. The SM is a patchwork of ad hoc or historical concepts, several of which have been proven to be incorrect mathematically or which have not been verified experimentally. Numerous experimental advantages of ECE over SM are listed on www.aias.us.

2. The B(3) spin field exists in ECE and is due to the spin connection. This means that the electromagnetic field in ECE is the Cartan torsion of standard differential geometry within a proportionality referred to as the primordial voltage cA(0) and due fundamentally to the charge -e on the electron. In SM the connection in electrodynamics is zero, so B(3) is missing from SM. In ECE B(3) is observed as a magnetization of matter by the electromagnetic field (the inverse Faraday effect).

3. In ECE all sectors are manifestations of general relativity, i.e. are generally covariant as needed. In the SM the electromagnetic sector is Lorentz covariant only, and is defined in a flat or Minkowski spacetime.

4. The field equations of classical electrodynamics are the same for all practical purposes in both ECE and SM, i.e. the Gauss law of magnetism, the Faraday law of induction, the Coulomb law and the Ampere Maxwell law. However there is an important underlying difference in that these laws are defined in different spacetimes. In ECE they are defined in a spacetime with torsion and curvature present, in SM they are defined in a Minkowski spacetime with no torsion and no curvature. This means that the charge and current densities of these laws can be calculated in ECE from the first principles of general relativity, as required. In SM they are phenomenological, nineteenth century concepts

5. The spin connection exists in classical electrodynamics in ECE theory, but does not exist in SM. It enters into ECE through the relation between field and potential, and leads to the important possibility of spin connection resonance as observed by Tesla. This generates a large amount of electric power from space-time and allows a first understanding of Tesla's well known work. In SM the spin connection is zero because the underlying spacetime is flat. In SM Tesla's work cannot be understood. The spin connection resonance phenomenon opens up a large number of possibilities in electrical engineering.

6. In ECE the gravitational sector is developed rigorously, following the work of Crothers, so in ECE there is no Big Bang, no black holes and no dark matter. String theory is not used in ECE because string theory cannot be tested experimentally. The phenomenological concept of dark matter is replaced by the Cartan torsion in a philosophy rigorously derived from general relativity. The evolution of spiral galaxies for example is explained straightforwardly with the Cartan torsion. There are many data that refute Big Bang, and there are no data showing the existence of black holes. The 2.8 K background radiation is interpreted differently in ECE and SM.

7. In ECE, quantum mechanics is derived from differential geometry, for example the Dirac equation. The interpretation of quantum mechanics follows the causal realist school of Einstein, de Broglie, Schrodinger and Vigier, and not the Copenhagen School of SM. There are data that refute the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle by many orders of magnitude, so in ECE, attempts have been made to make the Uncertainty Principle compatible with general relativity.

8. In ECE the concept of the Higgs boson is not required, the weak field and strong field are developed using appropriate representation spaces or basis sets in differential geometry and mass intorduced from curvature, not from spontaneous symmetry breaking as in SM. In SM the Higgs boson is a central concept, but is at the same time ill defined. It was not found in the LEP collaboration. It is now being looked for at ever increasing energies in the large hadron collider expereimnt at CERN. However this is at huge expense for increasingly dubious purpose. ECE costs very little and has been developed largely by unpaid volunteers. ECE has taken nothing from the taxpayer.

9. In ECE the gauge principle is no longer used, from paper 70 onwards on www.aias.us it has been replaced by the invariance of the tetrad postulate under a general coordinate transformation. In SM the gauge principle is used in field theory. In ECE the Aharonov Bohm effects are explained straightforwadly with general relativity, and the Berry phase has been derived from geometry. A basic error has been found in the SM model of the Aharonov Bohm effect. Similarly the Sagnac effect, Faraday disk generator and other concepts have been interpreted in ECE using general relativity whereas SM has great dificulty in dealing with these effects.

10. Quantum entanglement and similar phenomena are understood in ECE with the spin connection, for example Young interferometry. Interferometry in general is understood in ECE using the B(3) field, as are everyday phenomena such as reflection. SM again has great difficulty in understanding these phenomena.

This is a small selection of main differences, the experimental data are overwhelmingly in favour of ECE, and it is not allowed in natural philosophy to attempt to refute one theory with another. Theories must always be tested against data. This is Bacon's well known philosophy that is basic to science.

Civil List Scientist,
AIAS President,
Chairman of Steriwave Plc.

cc Prime Minister's Office and Welsh Assembly

Posted: 2007-10-27