Eine neue Errungenschaft im Verständnis der Grundlagen der Physik

July 5th, 2022

(Translation of the preceding post)

In den UFT-Artikeln 449-451 haben wir beschrieben, wie eine zentralsymmetrische Raumzeit elektromagnetische Kraftfelder erzeugen kann, ohne dass echte elektrische Ladungen vorhanden sind. Diese Felder ergeben sich aus der Geometrie selbst. Das Modell ist auf sehr unterschiedlichen Skalen anwendbar und zeigt eine fraktale Struktur. Mit diesem Modell lassen sich die im Zentrum von Galaxien entstehenden Materie-Jets erklären, bis hin zu kleinsten Materieeinheiten, Elementarteilchen und sogar deren Bestandteilen, die im Standardmodell als „Quarks“ bezeichnet werden.

Um den subatomaren Bereich vollständig abzudecken, muss angenommen werden, dass die Raumzeit den Prinzipien der Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie unterliegt. Bei der Entwicklung der ECE-Theorie wurde festgestellt, dass die m-Theorie ein sehr nützliches und vielseitiges Werkzeug ist, um eine solche Beschreibung der Raumzeit bereitzustellen. Die m-Theorie ist eine Verallgemeinerung der Raumzeitmetrik („Schwarzschild-Metrik“), die zur Beschreibung „Schwarzer Löcher“ in der Einsteinschen Theorie verwendet wurde. In der Arbeit des AIAS-Instituts wurde diese Metrik verallgemeinert, um jede Art Raumverzerrung beschreiben zu können. Sie ist im einfachsten Fall kugelsymmetrisch und hängt nur von der radialen Koordinate ab. In dieser Form wurde sie auf eine kugelsymmetrische Raumzeit angewendet. Bei Annäherung an das Kugelzentrum führt die Metrik der m-Theorie zu einer Verringerung der Ätherdichte, die im Zentrum selbst gegen Null geht. Dieses Verhalten war erforderlich, um Ergebnisse zu erhalten, die mit den im Standardmodell beschriebenen experimentellen Befunden kompatibel sind. Wir können dies dahingehend interpretieren, dass das Zentrum jeder elementaren Materieeinheit leer ist. Der Eindruck von physikalischer Materie (mit all ihren quantenmechanischen und makroskopischen Konsequenzen) kommt von einer Wirbelstruktur, die von einem rotierenden Äther oder der Raumzeit selbst gebildet wird.

Da im geometrischen Modell keine elektrischen Ladungen angenommen werden, ist bemerkenswert, dass die von der zentralsymmetrischen Raumzeit erzeugten Kräfte eine Divergenz aufweisen, die einer Quellenladung entspricht. Diese Ladung ist ausschließlich topologischen Ursprungs. Mit anderen Worten, die zentralsymmetrische Raumzeit erzeugt eine Struktur, die wir als elektrische Ladungen erfahren. Außerdem wurde ein aus magnetischen Monopolen gebildeter Dipol gefunden. Das bedeutet, dass die Divergenz von Magnetfeldern nicht Null ist, wie dies in der Standardphysik und Elektrotechnik üblicherweise angenommen wird. Insgesamt haben wir den Ursprung der Ladungen entschlüsselt, was bisher ein Rätsel in der Wissenschaft war. Das zweite Rätsel in der Wissenschaft, die Natur der Gravitation, wurde bereits im UFT-Artikel 447 entschlüsselt. Wir haben also einen bedeutenden Fortschritt in der Wissenschaft und in der Naturphilosophie gemacht.

A new achievement in understanding the foundations of physics

July 5th, 2022

In the papers 449-451, we have described how a centrally symmetric spacetime is able to produce electromagnetic force fields, without the presence of real electric charges. These fields arise from the geometry itself. The model is applicable on very different scales, showing a fractal structure. By this model, the jets of matter arising in the center of galaxies can be explained, down to the smallest entities of matter, elementary particles and even their constituents that are denoted as “quarks” in the Standard Model.

To fully cover the sub-atomic range, the spacetime has to be assumed to underlie the principles of general relativity. Within the development of ECE theory, it was found that m theory is a very ueful and versatile tool to provide such a description of spacetime. m theory is a generalization of the spacetime metric (“Schwarzschild metric”) that was used to describe “black holes” in Einsteinian theory. In the work of the AIAS institute, this metric has been generalized to describe any space distortion. In the simplest case, it is spherically symmetric and depends on the radial coordinate only. In this form it has been applied to a spherically symmetric spacetime. When approaching the spherical center, the metric of m theory leads to a reduction of the aether density, which goes to zero at the center itself. This behavior was required to obtain results that are compatible with the experimental findings described in the Standard Model. We can interpret this in saying that the center of each elementary matter unit is empty. The impression of physical matter (with all it quantum-mechanical and macrosopic consequences) comes from a vortex structure formed by a rotating aether or spacetime itself.

Since no electric charges are assumed in the geometric model, it is remarkable that the forces produced by the centrally symmetric spacetime have a divergence, which corresponds to a source charge. This charge is of topological origin exclusively. In other words, the centrally symmetric spacetime produces a structure, which we experience as electric charges. In addition, a dipole constituted from magnetic monopoles was found. This means that the divergence of magnetic fields is not zero as is normally assumed in standard physics and electrical engineering. In total, we have found the origin of charges, which was an enigma of science so far. The second enigma of science, the nature of gravitation, has already been unraveled in UFT paper 447. So we have made a significant progress in science and in natural philosophy.

Describing the structure of elementary particles by ECE geometry

June 14th, 2022

In recent papers 449 and 450, a centrally symmetric spacetime was investigated in the view of Cartan geometry. The result is that this structure generates force fields, which partially have a divergence and curl. The divergence can be consideres as a “topoligical” source of matter. I am extending this model to a rotating spherical spacetime in Paper 451. Rotation is everywhere, because there are no fixed points in the universe. The rotation generates 6 fields, 3 electric and 3 magnetic, in total. These are at the same time matter fields, because ECE theory is a unified field theory. The result can be compared with the 6 “quarks” of elementary particle theory (3 “up” and 3 “down” quarks), by which ordinary matter (consisting of protons and neutrons) is made. The other 12 quark types appear only under extreme conditions as in paricle accelerators or in the higher atmosphere. The ECE model could provide a structural model for matter that is based completely on geometry. No quantum theory was used for these considerations so far.

Paper 450: spherically symmetric spacetime, part II

June 8th, 2022

I have finished the preliminary version of paper 450, a continuation of paper 449 on topological fields, which are induced by the symmetry of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Topological (or virtual) charge and current densities are inferred. In particular, magnetic monopoles arise from the central symmetry structure. This seems to be the first time that such monopoles have been predicted by ECE theory.

Paper on embedding of m theory into Cartan geometry

June 2nd, 2022

I attached the preliminary paper 449, which describes the embedding of m theory into Cartan geometry, using the example of a centrally symmetric spacetime. Astonishingly, a rotational B field structure appears that has no counterpart in the tetrad, in which no rotational elements are contained.

Draft of Vol. 2 of the ECE textbook

May 11th, 2022

The first two chapters of vol. 2 of the ECE textbook have been published as paper 448:

http://aias.us/documents/uft/textbook-2.pdf

The numbering, starting with Chapter 11, extends the chapters of vol. 1. The chapters deal with foundations of quantum mechanics and the Fermion equation that is the ECE form of the Dirac equation. It was quite a hard piece of work to figure out the different ways that Myron had used to describe the spectroscopic methods. The underlying physical effects are multiply derived in Chapter 12, giving slightly different results according to the computation method (non-rel., rel., Dirac etc.). Since spectroscopy was Myron’s original field of work, I presented this in some detail. The description is “only” 20 pages, but they contain a concentrated load of mathematics based on Pauli algebra. All equations have been checked by computer algebra. At the time writing the original papers, we had not enough experience with this. Therefore some corrections had to be made in the sequence of papers. Meanwhile we can be sure that all equations are correct.

Can aether compounds be identical with dark matter?

January 26th, 2022

Dear Horst,

Could the aether compounds (see UFT paper 447) be the dark matter that standard physics is fixated on?
Best wishes
Kerry Pendergast

Dear Kerry,

this depends on whether aether compounds have a measurable mass or not. To my understanding they have not. They are more like a special kind of radiation. It is more plausible that the effect of dark matter is a consequence of the angular momentum of galaxies. Indirectly, this also is an aether effect, because the rotation of spacetime is intermediated by rotation of the aether. In our calculations it was sufficient to assume a homogeneous aether so it is not a consequence of structured aether like in aether compounds.

Horst

Discussion on Heim, Einstein and Cartan geometry

December 30th, 2021

The fundamental problem of Einstein’s field equation is as follows. At the left, you have the Einstein tensor which is pure geometry. At the right, you have the energy-momentum or – better – stress-energy or energy-density tensor, which is independent of the curvature field. Therefore, the latter tensor does not contain the field energy.
(see https://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Relativity/GR/energy_gr.html)
Therefore, Einstein’s theory had some success for explaining small deviations from special relativity in the solar system, but fails, for example, in explaining the velocity curves of galaxies.

Besides this, the approach (“ansatz”) of Einstein’s equation has consequences for the mathematics. The geometric quantities of the left hand side are equated to a physical definition on the right hand side which does not come from geometry so that the region of Riemann geometry is left. In doing so, one has to guarantee that no contradictions appear. However, when Riemann geometry is embedded into a “more complete” geometry, namely Cartan geometry, it comes out that Einstein’s approach leads to contradictions. His approach is only valid as a rough approximation to the higher-level geometry, where torsion is considered to be a minor disturbation.
Heim recognized this problem of Einstein’s equation without using formal arguments like Cartan geometry.

Heim published only few papers and most of his heritage is written on notice sheets. His computation of masses of elementary particles is not well documented, I never tried to understand this, although the results are convincing.

Gauge theory is not compatible with Cartan geometry. Gauge theory leans on a zero photon mass, which leads to a truncated form of electromagnetic waves (no longitudinal waves). However, longitudinal wave solutions are compatible with Maxwell’s equations. This is an argument that photn mass exists, and this falsifies gauge theories. Cartan theory delivers the Proca equation, which is the mathematical formulation that gauge invariance does not exist, and of course longitudinal waves are solutions of Cartan geometry. This is an argument for me that the extension of Riemann geometry by Cartan geometry is a good choice.

A “Trojan horse” to standard physics

December 28th, 2021

Thanks, Kerry, for these clarifications.
ECE2 theory offers indeed a connection to Einstein’s general relativity, so “Trojan horse” is justified. In this context, UFT paper 445 should be mentioned. Doug and I have shown that Einstein’s field equation, although strictly mathematically wrong, can be considered as an approximation to Cartan geometry, when torsion is considered as a higher-order perturbation. This is another “Trojan horse”. We only need some Greeks who bring in the horse to Troja (i.e., the world of standard physics :-).

Horst

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Chapter 6 of your book introduces us to ECE2 theory.

It allows for simplification by reducing the need to refer to tangent space, when dealing with curvature. However, torsion is still incorporated in the background.

I like page 118, where the pure curvature equations of ECE2 take the guise of Einstein’s general telativity, while the geometric current definitions contain a torsion term allowing for Cartan geometry to enter from stage left.

So ECE2 theory carries the Trojan horse to open up general relativity to a new millenium treatment, which allows for calculations of fields to be better defined.

Best wishes

Kerry Pendergast

The role of charges and masses in Heim and Evans theory

December 27th, 2021

I was asked how charge and mass of matter is handled in Heim’s generalized field theory.

Heim uses Einstein’s field equation and defines a (generalized) energy-momentum tensor for this purpose, which contains electromagnetic and gravitational components. The gravitational components are defined in analogy to the electromagnetic components and contain the gravito-magnetid field, for example. The problem, however, is that the energy-momentum tensor contains charge and mass density terms. In this way, Einstein’s field equations become dependent on explicit sources. This leads to problems of several kinds, in particlular a physical interpretation problem of sources in general relativity, and, as far as I know, abolition of energy conservation.

Heim tries to avoid these problems by assuming that sources are nothing else than “compacted” fields. I cannot say how he treats this formally. Evans avoids this problem in his ECE theory in the same way, but Evans does not use Einstein’s field equations, he uses the geometry equations of Cartan instead. This approach avoids all the problems that Einstein had. There are no sources a priori but only fields, as Heim assumed. In ECE theory, the equations of Cartan geometry can be written in a form equivalent to Maxwell’s equations, for electrodynamics as well as for gravitation. By comparing with Maxwell’s original equations with chages and currents, one can define charge and current terms, which consist of field terms mixed with curvature and torsion terms. The same can be done for gravitation. Unification happens via geometry. If a charge is there, we have electromagnetism, if not, we have gravitation only.

Heim and Evans agree in the point that they do not need sources in their theories. Matter is a “condensed field” of general relativity and spacetime itself may be interpreted as a vacuum or aether field being everywhere. To my understanding, Heim’s theory could be put on a much clearer ground if it would be based on Cartan geometry rather then Einstein’s field equations.
Considering matter as condensed fields leads to quantum mechanics in a straight line, avoiding extra concepts like quantum electrodynamics and similar. According to Evans, all physics is geometry.