Chapter 8 on unified fluid dynamics has been finished. This is an important chapter of the text book and provides a new understanding of the aether or vacuum. The table on historical development has been placed at the end of the introduction now.

You’ve provided a great deal of new fluid-spacetime material. I did a single quick read through, but must now study it more carefully.

I’m leaning toward the conclusion that the fluid dynamics formulation of spacetime represents the most ontological description of the physics (i.e. a description of what actually is occurring in our physical realm). This prompts a question about “relativistic” time dilation effects with respect to the fluid aether.

Is it possible that the local time flow is related to the local aether density? Does time transpire more slowly in denser aether? is aether compressed in and near large gravitational masses, or also more compressed in a spaceship traveling at light speed (such as the proverbial astronaut moving near light speed in a rocket not aging as fast as his twin brother still on earth)?

-Russ

Russ,

I think you are right, the fluid dynamics formulation of spacetime represents the most ontological description of physics. Many phenomena can only be understood within this background, for example the velocity curves of galaxies. Relativistic effects are not contained in classical fluid dynamics, because there the flow velocities low. However, when we consider the travelling of light in the aether, your argument is justified. We have developted m theory as a possible solution to this problem. The function m(r) can be considered as a change of spacetime or aether density. We have handled this in the context of the line element of general relativity, including time dilation effects. I will come back to this point next in the chapter of gravitation (chapter 9 of the textbook). The effects of special relativity should be contained in this kind of description, although we did not consider this in the last UFT papers of ECE theory.

The youtube video at the link below may be of interest (presented by Cambridge University Press webinar series). It details some recent macroscopic fluid experiments that result in quantum-like statistics, so fluid dynamics and quantum mechanics could have significant commonality.

John W. Bush of MIT proposes and explores a new, trajectory-based description of quantumdynamics informed by the hydrodynamic system.(Jun 15, 2020)

You may find these webpages more useful than the fast-paced audio English language youtube video.

Hydrodynamic quantum analogs (John W.M. Bush, professor of applied mathematics, MIT)

In the ECE textbook, chapter 7 on dynamics has been added. After electrodynamics, this is the first chapter on mechanics and dynamics. This is the preliminary version for proof reading:

There is an interesting development concerning propuslion by general relativity. The method is using the Alcubierre metric in connection with woliton waves. The Alcubierre metric has already been analysed in our book on Einstein criticism.

This includes, for example, the famous warp drive, on which, among other things, the spaceship Enterprise from the Star Trek universe relies. Such a drive could actually work on paper, wrote the Mexican physicist Miguel Alcubierre in 1994. His theoretical solution for locomotion at faster than light speed does not contradict at least the general and special theory of relativity. The thought experiment, also known as the Alcubierre drive, is based on a local deformation of space-time, like a wave on which a hypothetical spaceship could even reach ten times the speed of light.

Abstract of the original paper:

Solitons in space-time capable of transporting time-like observers at superluminal speeds have long been tied to violations of the weak, strong, and dominant energy conditions of general relativity. The negative-energy sources required for these solitons must be created through energy-intensive uncertainty principle processes as no such classical source is known in particle physics. This paper overcomes this barrier by constructing a class of soliton solutions that are capable of superluminal motion and sourced by purely positive energy densities. The solitons are also shown to be capable of being sourced from the stress–energy of a conducting plasma and classical electromagnetic fields. This is the first example of hyper-fast solitons resulting from known and familiar sources, reopening the discussion of superluminal mechanisms rooted in conventional physics.

Although he does not refer to ECE theory, he uses concepts of fluid electrodynamics and the gravitomagnetic field, both well developed by the AIAS group. Science daily writes about Ludwig’s article in a contribution:

Factoring in Gravitomagnetism Could Do Away With Dark Matter

Models of galactic rotation curves built of a general relativistic framework could use gravitomagnetism to explain the effects of dark matter.

Observations of galactic rotation curves give one of the strongest lines of evidence pointing towards the existence of dark matter, a non-baryonic form of matter that makes up an estimated 85% of the matter in the observable Universe. Current assessments of galactic rotation curves are based upon a framework of Newtonian accounts of gravity, a new paper published in EPJ C, by Gerson Otto Ludwig, National Institute for Space Research, Brazil, suggests that if this is substituted with a general relativity-based model, the need to recourse to dark matter is relieved, replaced by the effects of gravitomagnetism.

The main role of dark matter, Ludwig points out in the paper, has historically been to resolve the disparity between astrophysical observations and current theories of gravity. Put simply, if baryonic matter — the form of matter we see around us every day which is made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons — is the only form of matter, then there shouldn’t be enough gravitational force to prevent galaxies from flying apart.

By disregarding general relativistic corrections to Newtonian gravity arising from mass currents, and by neglecting these mass currents, Ludwig asserts these models also miss significant modifications to rotational curves — the orbital speeds of visible stars and gas plotted against their radial distance from their galaxy’s center. This is because of an effect in general relativity not present in Newton’s theory of gravity — frame-dragging or the Lense Thirring effect. This effect arises when a massive rotating object like a star or black hole ‘drags’ the very fabric of spacetime along with it, in turn giving rise to a gravitomagnetic field.

In this paper, Ludwig presents a new model for the rotational curves of galaxies which is in agreement with previous efforts involving general relativity. The researcher demonstrates that even though the effects of gravitomagnetic fields are weak, factoring them into models alleviates the difference between theories of gravity and observed rotational curves — eliminating the need for dark matter. The theory still needs some development before it is widely accepted, with the author particularly pointing out that the time evolution of galaxies modeled with this framework is a complex problem that will require much deeper analysis.

Ludwig concludes by suggesting that all calculations performed with thin galactic disk models performed up until this point may have to be recalculated, and the very concept of dark matter itself, questioned.

Reference: “Galactic rotation curve and dark matter according to gravitomagnetism” by G. O. Ludwig, 23 February 2021, The European Physical Journal C. DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-021-08967-3

Chapter 6 of the ECE textbook has now been published as a new version of UFT paper 438. The chapter describes ECE2 theory and the important application of Beltrami solutions. Both subjects were introduced differently by Myron. Here I tried to present the subjects in analogy to prior ECE theory so that the textbook has a unified style and is easier to read. So the presentation has less “fiery” originality but is mathematically more stringent. At the end of the book, a table has been added, in which the times of the main discoveries are listed.

Next, the part on ECE dynamics and mechanics will be published. It is planned to present a preview on the most important subject (field equations of dynamics) in near time.

I am glad to announce the finishing of chapter 6 of the ECE textbook. It describes ECE2 theory and the important application of Beltrami solutions. Both subjects were introduced differently by Myron. Here I tried to present the subjects in analogy to prior ECE theory so that the textbook has a unified style and is easier to read. So the presentation has less “fiery” originality but is mathematically more stringent.

Ulrich Bruchholz published a paper in co-authorship with me. Three principal approaches of physics are compared, which are foundational for classical theoretical physics of the 20th century: The General Relativity of Einstein, the theory of Rainich, which uses the Einstein-Maxwell equations, and the Einsten-Cartan-Evans theory of Myron Evans.

Unification aspects of all three theories are compared and determinacy on a classical level is discussed. The role of deterministic chaos is shown to be the reason that Bruchholz is able to compute properties of elementary particles numerically.

This question was asked in an article of scitechdaily:

There are theories being alternative to the popular “dark matter” suspection, which is used to explain why stars in galaxies show motions different from Newtonian dynamics. A “pull” of stars has been detected which is attributed to an “external force”. In all these attributions, it is assumed that non-Newtonian effects are evoked by mass-based forces. Scientists have not enough phantasy to imagine that a different type of dynamics could explain the observed effects also. Dynamics has to do with linear momentum and angular momentum. So the scientists should think about such sources of impact. Then they would perhaps encounter ECE theory which explains their “unexplainable” effects very simply and consistently by angular momentum.

In this contibution we discuss principal questions of physics, for which no convincing solutions have been given so far. Besides mathematical theory, we borrow some ideas from Nicola Tesla and Tom Bearden.

Many people argue that a unified theory of physics should have an explanation on a physical level, on what gravity is and how it is related to electromagnetism. In ECE theory, we have limited ourselves so far to the description of effects, including coupling between gravitation and electromagnetism, withoutout making statements on the “real nature” of elementary forces of physics. However, the means are there now to tackle this foundational problem in detail. We have a vacuum theory (macroscopically and microscopically), a theory of potentials making up spacetime, a theory of fluid mechanics, fluid electrodynamics and fluid gravitation. There have even been estimations for upper limits of vacuum particles, assuming a discrete vacuum structure as Nicola Tesla did.

Putting all this together, we are able to theoretically verify a model of electromagnetism proposed by Tom Bearden. Electric fields are a transport phenomenen of aether strucutres. These structures consist of a special configuration built by aether particles. Since aether particles flow from one charged pole to another (in case of a dipole), there must be a mechanism for refilling the charges with aether particles. This refilling process works by “unstructured” aether particles, which are reconfigured in charged masses. The reflow of aether particles is necessary for conservation of aether mass-energy. This reflow makes up the gravitational field. Since matter is internally charged (atomic nuclei), There is always such a process. The aether reflow generates a pressure and velocity distribution in the aether. These are the gravitational pontenials, which give rise to the gravitational force fields (Newtonian gravitation and gravito-magnetic field). Because both, the electric and gravitational flow, are evoked by aether structures, they underly the same elementary mechanisms and therefore the same geometric equations. This is the reason why the ECE field equations are the same for gravitation and electromagnetism, with exception of different constants.

Tom Bearden was not able to descirbe his ideas by mathematical models. This is now possible by ECE theory. Ordinary electrodynamics is not sufficient. One needs to apply the ECE antisymmetry laws to show that an aether flow (vector potential) is connected even with a static electric field. The counterpart of the Coulomb law, Newton’s law, can be derived by equating the constants of both laws. Since the potentials describe a scalar-valued density function, the same law is valid for both flow directions of aether particles, that is the electric flow and the gravitational back-flow. As a consequence, it is also explained that central gravitational forces are always positive, while both signs are possible for central electrical forces.

The unified field theory presented on this site uses the three dimensions of space plus time. Using a modern and complete geometry all known laws of physics can be described with a single unified mathematical framework. Our unified model uses differential geometry in the spirit of General Relativity and introduces the full spectrum of transformation to the underlying geometric framework. The introduction of torsion resolves a long standing discrepancy between the equations of Gravity in General Relativity and the atomic behaviors in Quantum Mechanics. This reduces the probability in quantum uncertainty to effects of classical statistics rather than fundamentally probabilistic behavior.